These are stats all colonists have. They influence all aspects of the game in various ways, from the ability to breed successfully to success in activities.
Stats, except for health, can be improved manually through two main methods. The first is The Six Crucibles, which are special activities that you may submit for every month. Crucibles grant true stats: those that can be inherited by offspring. On the other hand, you can temporarily increase stats by equipping your colonists with weapons or gear that add modifiers on top of certain stats.